The Six Weeks of Love for Softies contest over at Sew Mama Sew is in full swing. We performed quality trimming for each sample using Trim Galore (http://www.bioinformatics.babraham.ac.uk/projects/trim_galore/). Here, we analyzed the CN profiles of 17 polar bears, 9 brown bears, and 2 black bears (Ursus americanus). 6. The most obvious adaptation is the lack of fur pigmentation, which aids in camouflage (5). We then independently calculated VST values across the 21,142 predicted polar bear protein-coding genes and observed an average VST of 0.018 using Control-FREEC (Fig. In vertebrates, OR genes encode G protein-coupled receptors and the OR gene family in mammals can comprise more than 1,000 genes in most species, including bears (60⇓⇓–63). S6, and Dataset S2). Principal component analysis of gene CN provides strong evidence that CNV evolved rapidly in the polar bear lineage and mainly resulted in CN loss. We calculated VST as follows:VST=(Vtotal−(Vpolar bear×Npolar bear+Vbrown bear×Nbrown bear))/NtotalVtotal. Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum. This video does a great job of explaining how to interpret species relatedness using trees, including describing some of the common incorrect ways to read trees: Constructing phylogenetic trees . This 59 x 59” lap-sized quilt is made from 12 x 12” finished blocks. Discover (and save!) The unexpected mix of alpaca-like evolution and incremental clicker games Doodle-like illustrations Various possible endings: find your destiny No bears were harmed in the making of this game, only developers 1 and 2). Additionally, polar bear claws are shorter, sharper, and more curved than those of the brown bear, adaptations that at once facilitate locomotion on icy surfaces and are better suited for grabbing and securely holding prey (5). V. E. Kutschera, T. Bidon, F. Hailer, J. L. Rodi, S. R. Fain, A. Janke. and enter to win. The strong selective pressure imposed by diet has shaped population-specific human genetic variants (18, 79⇓–81), and similar evolutionary processes likely shaped the polar bear genome during the transition from an omnivorous diet to a mainly carnivorous diet. The bear has shorter arms and its body size is smaller than it used to be. (B) A heat map depicting the BDN CN estimates for nonoverlapping 100-bp windows in the AMY2B and AMY1B locus on scaffold70 (positions 1,331,300 to 1,380,700) of the reference polar bear genome. Plus, you can finish this crochet bear pattern in about 25 cm by following this pattern. For discussion questions and lesson plans go to the Evolution Lab collection on PBS LearningMedia. The earliest bears had the characteristics of both dogs and bears, with heavy-set features and blunter teeth than those of true dogs. From shop JudiLynnDesigns. 1 and Dataset S2). Nevertheless, the speciation of some individual genes has not finished yet which additionally complicates the research of the evolution of bears. Our analyses reinforce the observation that CNV can contribute to rapid phenotypic diversity and ecological adaptation (19, 21, 30, 74, 77, 78). The PCs were computed using the prcomp function in R using a data matrix containing the CNs of genes in all of the bear samples analyzed (90). In addition, we identify recurrent, large-scale patterns of reticulate evolution, including frequent PB2-PB1-PA-NP cosegregation during avian influenza reassortment. March 25, 2015. Our analysis identified variation in copy number for genes linked to dietary and ecological requirements of the bear species. The number of CNV genes per individual is consistent with results found in humans, mice, and horses (20, 26, 27). And just remember, if you're making your bear for a toddler or small child, make sure not to embellish your bear with anything (like buttons) that could come off and become a choking hazard. CNs are from Control-FREEC estimates. (2014, June 11). If you can sew a straight ¼ inch seam, you can make this quilt. 95. Questions? Although the polar bear diet likely includes a small proportion of plant and fungal material, the vast majority of caloric intake comes from seal (10, 53, 75). Copyright © 2021 National Academy of Sciences. Have you ever wondered how polar bears came to be white? We were primarily interested in identifying CN-variable genes because of their potential impact on phenotype. Other highly differentiated genes were even more directly involved in sensory perception and dietary behavior. There are eight bear species that still exist worldwide. Individual samples identifiers and gene identifiers are provided in Dataset S1. Olfactory receptors composed 47% of CN differentiated genes, with the majority of these genes being at lower CN in the polar bear. Polar bears live in the Arctic, but not the Antarctic. This fossil record shows that many kinds of extinct organisms were very different in form from any now living. We also identified an interesting fur-related gene, KRTAP21-1 (Uma_R019359), which was highly differentiated between bear species. amigurum.com S2). ScienceDaily, 11 June 2014. Our analysis suggests that CNV is common in the Ursus genus. Polar bear possess fewer copies of AMY1B compared with brown bear. S3). sMap: Evolution of independent, dependent and conditioned discrete characters in a Bayesian framework. I'm only 40, and I am just getting started. S3). CN variants have higher mutation rates than SNPs, and CNV loci together encompass an order of magnitude more nucleotides compared with SNPs (12, 13). 1 and 2). These results suggest that genic copy number variation has played an important role in polar bear adaptation to the Arctic. "The traditional pedigree already used by Darwin is not always suitable to map evolutionary history in full detail. The modern bear has shorter neck, tail and face. Finally, we took the maximum permuted VST observed in the 95th and 99th percentiles of all genes to establish a genome-wide standard cutoff (maximum 95th percentile: VST > 0.22; maximum 99th percentile: VST > 0.35) for all subsequent analysis. Polar bears -- like these shown in Manitoba, Canada -- are a prime example of animals adapting to their environment. Black bear movement patterns were typical of black bears in wildland areas with most movement occurring during the day, with peaks during morning and evening hours [9, 17]. Talk out loud as the activity progresses, making comments on the patterning process. designed research; D.C.R., N.K.S., S.Z., and J.G.G. a modern bear is usually in its cave or near the water to receive its prey. The reference black bear genome and gtf file was downloaded from ftp://ftp.jax.org/maine_blackbear_project/. Both VST and FST consider how genetic variation can partition groups (populations or closely related species) (32) and range from 0 (no differentiation between groups) to 1 (complete differentiation between groups). This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1901093116/-/DCSupplemental. Within clade A, we estimated divergence between A-east and A-west haplotypes at 169 ka; divergence of the nuclear eastern and western clusters occurred 67 ka. S7). As a family, bears are thought to have evolved some 4.6 million years ago, with the oldest Polar Bear fossil being between 110 and 130 thousand years old. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Image credit: José Francisco Salgado (artist). But how did their fur change from brown to white? Apparently separate genetic lineages turn out to have merged -- sometimes repeatedly -- during the evolutionary history and exchanged genetic material with each other. The extra details of the heart and rosy cheeks make what would be a very simple design into a loveable, huggable, and very cute soft toy. Go to CAGEF website. Eicosanoids derive from arachidonic acid and play important roles in inflammation, thermoregulation, and cardiovascular function (56). Evolution Lab Guide for Educators. Moreover, the pink color of this bear makes your little cutie pie happy. "Evolutionary history of bears: It's complicated." Biomedical communities and journals need to standardize nomenclature of gene products to enhance accuracy in scientific and public communication. The brown bear seems to have evolved from the Asian subspecies Ursus savini about 800,000 years ago. performed research; D.C.R., N.K.S., S.Z., and J.G.G. Independent analyses were performed on the full set of genes with CN information (21,142 genes), as well as on subsets of genes thresholded at a minimal VST of 0.22 (197 genes) or 0.35 (134 genes) (Fig. Accordingly, a number of genes involved in cardiovascular function and fatty acid metabolism display signatures of recent positive selection (3, 4). Inhibiting a signaling pathway protects microgravity-exposed mice from losing muscle and bone mass, a study finds. However, examining daily selection for different landscape features showed that when bears did move at night, they displayed a preference for roads and residential areas, especially in the spring and fall. We generated whole-genome CN profiles for 17 polar bear and 9 brown bear individuals and identified genes with highly differentiated CN profiles between species that are indicative of recent positive selection. Teddy Bear Patterns (McGrath Math) by Barbara Barbieri McGrath and Tim Nihoff | Feb 1, 2013. The study demonstrates that evolution often is not a linear process; thanks to modern molecular methods it's complex processes are finally revealed. / Procedia Environmental Sciences 14 ( 2012 ) 111 – 122 113 2. Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on PNAS. We calculated VST to identify divergent CNV profiles between the polar bear and brown bear populations (32). But bears do not lower the body temperature as much as once thought. For molecular patterning to play a role in dental evolution, gene expression differences should be linkable to corresponding morphological differences. S5, and Datasets S1 and S2). Despite many years of research, the exact relationships between them remain unresolved. Differences in both fur pigmentation and fur structural morphology are likely adaptations to the arctic environment. CN variants were not predicted in reference scaffolds <10 kb. The number and percentages of differentiated genes are similar to those found between human populations (21). The oldest fossil discovered in China and it is 500,000 years old. We observed that the majority of genes displaying differentiated CN have lower CN in polar bears. S4). 2). Genes with black circle notations represent high-CN genes and have different scales (see key). The higher gene CN of KRTAP21-1 in polar bears (Fig. CNV can influence phenotype, most commonly through changes in gene expression (14⇓–16). The disciplines most intimately intertwined with the study of dispersion are systematics and evolution. 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